Photographer's Note

(A red substance is spat out after chewing tobacco...)

• Betel pepper leaf (piper chavica betle) The leaf (paan) is used to wrap the fillings to form a quid. The leaf has a minty/menthol taste and is considered a mouth freshener. There is very little evidence to indicate any health implications of the betel leaf
• Areca palm nut (supari) (Areca catechu) It is a small hard nut 20-30mm diameter. It is cured by sun drying, roasting or boiling it. The nut can be used as crushed fragments, sliced slithers or grated strands. Some people add saffron (cheaper versions use yellow food dyes) and sugar syrups to produce sweet supari (sweet nut)
• Aromatic spices are added to Paans:
• Aromatic seeds: Aniseed, Fennel, Coriander, Pods and buds: Cardamom, Cloves and sweet leaf, Flowers: Gulkhand (rose) and Saffron, Extracts: Rose and Jasmine extract
• Sugar products: Scented sugar syrup, saffron sugar, Fruits: Desiccated coconut shreds, glazed cherries/fruit, Barks-Cinnamon, liquorice and myrrh, Nobel metals- gold or silver leaf
• Gutkas- New developments the 'ready made tobacco masalas'

Who chews Gutka?
• As the product originated from Indian tobacco companies, the first outlets were UK Indian Paan houses. Gujarati's from India (Hindu, Muslim and Jains) have been shown to use Gutkas
• • Gutkas are now being consumed by a wide range of people and social classes in the wrong belief that they are mouth fresheners

KHAT; some facts

• Khat itself is legal in the UK but the 2 main active ingredients of khat, cathine and cathinone are Class C controlled substances under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act
• Can stay in the blood for 24 hours & suppresses appetite
• Is a stimulant and chewing it can make people feel more alert and talkative. However, many users report a feeling of calm if it is chewed over a few hours. Some describe it as being 'blissed out'

Health Risks
• Insomnia, heart problems and sexual problems like impotence
• Can give rise to feelings of anxiety and aggression.
• Some people find it makes them irritable, in some cases very angry and even violent.
• It can make pre-existing mental health problems worse
• Gastro-intestinal tract problems such as anorexia and constipation are linked to Khat use
• There is an increase in Tuberculosis amongst Khat users
• Khat use is also associated with low birth weight in infants, and infant survival rates
• Long-term use of Khat is found to be linked to neck cancer
• Khat is chewed amongst the Somali And the Yemeni communities
• Growing number of women are chewing Khat
• Many social problems particularly family disputes and domestic violence are linked to the habit of chewing Khat
• More young people are Chewing Khat and going on to experiment with illegal drugs
• Young people from other communities particularly South Asian communities are chewing Khat as a ‘cheap alternative’

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Additional Photos by Kajal Nisha Patel (kajspice) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 525 W: 63 N: 762] (4542)
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