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Red apples in late summer.

Apple (lat. Malus pumila syn. Malus domestica) is a species of woody plant from the Rosaceae family. There are over 7,500 home-grown apple cultivars.
The domestic apple is a deciduous tree up to 12 m high, with a dense canopy. The leaves are oppositely arranged, oval with a pronounced tip and serrated edge. The flowers are white, with 5 corolla and 5 calyx petals. The fruit ripens in late summer and autumn.
The domestic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Is probably of hybrid origin, and originated in central parts of Asia. Its most closely related species, Malus sieversii, can still be found in the mountains of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and some parts of China, at altitudes between 1,200 and 1,800 m above sea level. As the roads that connected China with the Middle East and Europe passed through this area, it is probably the travelers who contributed to the spread of apples outside their homeland. There are archeological specimens of apples from Anatolia that are about 8,500 years old, although it is still not possible to say with certainty where the apples came from and whether people grew them.
The first data on apple cultivation speak of cultivation in Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia in the second millennium BC. n. e. Until the year 500 BC. n. e. the apple was probably grown throughout the Persian Empire. When Alexander the Great ruled Persia around 300 BC. n. e. apple growing spread throughout the Greek world.
With the development of the Roman Empire, fruit growing also developed, and the domestic apple spread to western and northern Europe. With the expansion of its range, the domestic apple came into contact with wild species of the genus Malus, often hybridizing and enriching its genotype. This would mean that the apples eaten by the Celts, Franks, Gauls and other Germanic tribes, as well as the Old Slavs, no longer exist on the planet.
From the 13th century AD. e. apples have become a highly cultivated species throughout Europe. During the 16th and 17th centuries, European colonists brought apples to America. It was transferred to South Africa in the middle of the 17th century. At the end of the 18th century, apple cultivation began in Australia and Tasmania. Thus, the domestic apple can thank the progress of civilization for the expansion of the area.

See photos in the workshop.
- fallen apples from a tree,
- red apples and green leaves.

Fis2, holmertz, jhm, PiotrF, COSTANTINO, mcmtanyel, ikeharel marcou esta nota como útil

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Additional Photos by Pavle Randjelovic (pajaran) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 12189 W: 2888 N: 24305] (100718)
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