Photographer's Note

Montefranco (TR)

It was born with the name of Castel Bufone around the year one thousand on the rocky ridge overlooking the valley of the Nera river, in a fortified position that represented a natural defense against the Saracen hordes that infested the valley at that time. Perhaps in that place there was a pre-existing Lombard garrison, but no documented information. In 1198 also this castle, like others of the Duchy of Spoleto, passed from imperial to that of the church. It is known that, in 1209, the Castle of Bufone attempted an unhappy act of rebellion against Innocent III, which ended with the occupation of the town by troops sent by the Pope.
In 1228 some inhabitants of Arrone, to escape the dominion of Rinaldo, who dominated in Val di Nera on behalf of Frederick II, came out of that castle and settled on the Bufone hill, on the right of the Nera, in front of Arrone, where they built a new castle. It was called Montefranco, because the men who had settled there had freed themselves from Arrone.
The Community immediately submitted to Spoleto and the conditions of subjection were stipulated on September 7, 1228; from this date the new settlement was for a long time under the control of the municipality of Spoleto, in exchange for very favorable capitularies in which it was foreseen the cession in perpetuity of the Monte with every franchise and freedom, in addition to the assurance of the defense from attacks by hostile castles, engaging in exchange to "make peace or war at the will of the City, with anyone and every time the Municipality had liked to do". Frederick II recognized the rights of Spoleto on the Castle of Bufone in 1241 and the Cardinal legate Capocci reconfirmed them in 1247, but the Arroni tried, with the support of Urban IV, to occupy the Castle of Bufone (1253). The attempt failed, but many of the escapees were convinced to return to Arrone, Spoleto to stop the depopulation of its strategic outpost in the Lower Valnerina, intervened promising anyone and anyone who had come from liberation from feudal subjection. In 1258 the statutes were given and became an independent community. In 1264 Montefranco was occupied by Germanic and Muslim troops of the Percivalle Doria ghibellino, immediately driven back by Spoleto troops. After the wave of Ghibellinism, Montefranco joined the confederation of the castles that, guided by the Abbey of San Pietro in Valle, did not renew the subjection to Spoleto. In 1338, after a long lawsuit at the curia of the duchy, the castles were acquitted and obtained the concession of the "Mero et Mixto Imperio" or the exercise of all political, administrative, fiscal and military powers. Montefranco is in the list of the Lands of the district of Spoleto in the year 1361. n 1372 the rebellious castles were again obliged to the subjection of Spoleto and in 1395 the Abbot of San Pietro in Valle occupied Montefranco. The Spoleto ran up and, although without any head, managed to remove the assailants. Narrated the news that the Spoleto were not more than 300 against 1,000 soldiers of Savelli. The small crowd gathered on Monte Moro and defended himself strenuously, fighting with great courage. The dead were numerous on both sides until the evening the two armies withdrew: the Spoletini in San Mamiliano and the Terni with Savelli towards Terni devastating and burning everything up to Strettura. The statutes of 1473 confirm the dependence of Montefranco da Spoleto.
Montefranco still has possession of Spoleto in the list of 1490.
In 1498 the Terni people moved with their troops on Montefranco, but the Spoleto ran and managed to get rid of the assailants.
In 1522 Montefranco participated in the revolt of the castles of Valnerina against Spoleto. In 1527 it was sacked by the Colonnese and Lansquenets, returning from the sack of Rome.
In 1608 Pope Paul V detached him from the dominion of Spoleto; Urban VIII, in 1627, brought it together, opening, in 1639, the Consolare Flaminia towards Montefranco, Valnerina, Scheggino, Gavelli and Monteleone through the road called "Strada delle ferriere", an event remembered in Arma di Papa by a newsstand and a plaque now damaged and kept in the municipal depot of Spoleto.
In 1798 it was joined to the Canton of Terni, together with Arrone, Castel di Lago and Collestatte. In 1799 bands of insurgents occupied Montefranco who was freed by French troops from Spoleto and sentenced to pay 700 scudi, despite the festive welcome of the population for the liberators. After the Restoration, in 1816 it became a community of residence as governor, included in the district government of Spoleto. In the territorial division of 1817, Montefranco with Poggio Lavarino is a community united in Terni, which is the seat of governorate and district. In the subsequent division of 1827, Montefranco is a community with a podestaria, subject to the government of Terni, in the homonymous district belonging to the Delegation of Spoleto and Rieti. This is still the case in 1833, when the delegation to which it belongs is that of Spoleto, and in 1858, part of the Province of Spoleto. Starting from 1860 Montefranco was an autonomous municipality in the new Kingdom, included in the Province of Umbria and, after 1927, in the Province of Terni. In the post-unification period, the institutional and administrative events of the other Italian municipalities followed.

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Additional Photos by Silvio Sorcini (Silvio1953) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 18518 W: 130 N: 39243] (210579)
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