Photographer's Note

The last 50 meters of Rion- Antirion bridge in Greece.
The bridge consists of:
a 2,252 meter long 4 pylon cable-stayed bridge with a span distribution equal to 286 meters, 560 meters, 560 meters, 560 meters and 286 meters,
two approach viaducts, with 392 meters on Rion side and 239 meters on Antirion side.
The upper soil layers are reinforced with inclusions, which are 2 meter diameter hollow steel pipes 25 to 30 meters long driven at a regular spacing of 7 meters. About 200 pipes are driven in at each pier location. A three meter thick properly leveled gravel layer tops them. Foundations are 90-meter diameter reinforced concrete caissons resting on the gravel layer.
A cone whose diameter ranges from 38 meters to 26 meters forms the lower part of the pier.
The upper pier shaft bears a reverse pyramid with a height of about 15 meters and a square base of 38-meter long side. Each pylon is composed of four reinforced concrete legs with a section of 4 by 4 meters, embedded in the pylon head to form a monolithic structure. The stay cables are in inclined arrangements, with their lower anchorage on deck sides and their upper anchorage in the 35-meter high pylon head. They are made of parallel galvanized strands. The thickest cable is formed of seventy 15mm strands.
The deck is 27.2 meters wide with two traffic lanes plus safety lane and a pedestrian walkway in each direction. It is a composite structure with a steel frame made of two longitudinal 2.2-meter high plate girders on each side and transverse plate girders spaced every 4 meters. The top slab is made of precast concrete panels.The deck is continuous and fully suspended for its total length. Four damping devices connect the deck to the top of each pier and limit the pendulum movement of the deck during an earthquake. The dynamic relative movement during the design seismic event is in the order of ± 1.30 meter while velocities may exceed 1 meter per second.
On each side, a monumental transition pier links together the deck of the cable-stayed bridge with the deck of the approach viaducts.

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Additional Photos by Vasilis Protopapas (vasilpro) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2742 W: 87 N: 5139] (41801)
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