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Photographer's Note

April 6, 2008
Félines-Minervois 340097 34210
Hérault Languedoc-Roussillon
43.330 2.600 160 m

Windmill XVIIe century, known as "Tower of Calfort".

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Mill tower of 1780, located on Pech de Marrassi, restored from February to July 2000.

The windmills converted the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy. It were used to actuate grinding stones, pumps, saws, etc...
The wings of the mill are supported by a tower, whose roof carrying the axis of the mill is directional in the case of the mill-turn. If the whole tower is directional, one speaks then about mill on pivot or with candlestick. A typical mill of Anjou, compromised between the precedents, is called mill cavier. The orientation of the mill is done by pushing the tiller or tail of the mill. The wings are generally drink some and covered with fabric. By a whole of gears, the lantern and the wheel equipped with cogs, often manufactured out of wood of various species chosen for their resistance, the rotational movement of the horizontal axis of the mill is transmitted to the grinding stone which crushes the grain on the dormant grinding stone. The trough makes it possible to control the arrival of the grain.

The windmill appeared in the East, Egypt and Iran. First mention of windmill in France, date of 1170, in a charter of the town of Arles. The Netherlands are probably the country which counted the greatest number of windmills.
The windmills were used incidentally as semaphores. Ansi, during the wars of the Vendée, the wings of the mills of Mount-of the Larks indicated to Vendean the positions and movements of the republican troops.

The mills inspired many great writers and among them:

ALPHONSE DAUDET, 1840-1897, who wrote in "the secrecy of Cornille Master", "Letters of My Mill":
"... Sunday we went to the mills, by bands. Up there, the millers paid the muscatel. The millers were beautiful like queens, with their rotten of laces and their gold crosses. Me, I brought my fifre, and until the black night one danced of the farandoles. These mills, you see, made the joy and the richness of our country."

RENE BAZIN, 1853-1932, whose Herve Bazin, also writer, were the great nephew, who wrote in connection with the mills of Poitou in "the mill which does not turn any more":
"... The least breeze, which crossed, met it. One did not have any, to make transfer the white wings, that what it is necessary so that the corns glisten, so that a stem of dandelion loses its seeds. A storm made it insane. During the winter, when the wind of north blew, the miller tightened all the fabric, and left only the frame out of rods of chestnut which was enough to turn the grinding stone, and nicely, I assure you."

Félines-Minervois is a French commune, located in the department of the Herault of the Languedoc-Roussillon area, populated of 389 Félinois, distributed on 30 km², that is to say 13 hab./km².

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Additional Photos by joel berthonneau (jlbrthnn) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 7168 W: 0 N: 22964] (76043)
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